Objective: Recent years saw an increasing interest towards sleep microstructure abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the existing literature on sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) power in ADHD is still controversial, often based on single electrode recordings, and mainly focused on slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM sleep. This study aimed to systematically investigate sleep power topography in all traditional frequency bands, in all sleep stages and across sleep cycles using high-density EEG (HD-EEG). Method: Thirty drug-naïve children with ADHD (10.5 ± 2.1 years, 21 male) and 23 typically developing (TD) control participants (mean age: 10.2 ± 1.6 years, 13 male) were included in the current analysis. Signal power topography was computed in classical frequency bands during sleep, contrasted between groups and sleep cycles, and correlated with measures of ADHD severity, cognitive functioning and estimated total sleep time. Results: Compared to TD subjects, patients with ADHD consistently displayed a widespread increase in low-frequency activity (between 3 and 10 Hz) during NREM sleep, but not during REM sleep and wake before sleep onset. Such a difference involved a wide centro-posterior cluster of channels in the upper SWA range, in Theta, and low-Alpha. Between-group difference was maximal in sleep stage N3 in the first sleep cycle, and positively correlated with average total sleep time. Conclusions: These results support the concept that children with ADHD, compared to TD peers, have a higher sleep pressure and altered sleep homeostasis, which possibly interfere with (and delay) cortical maturation.

Sleep Power Topography in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Bernardi Giulio
Methodology
;
2022

Abstract

Objective: Recent years saw an increasing interest towards sleep microstructure abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the existing literature on sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) power in ADHD is still controversial, often based on single electrode recordings, and mainly focused on slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM sleep. This study aimed to systematically investigate sleep power topography in all traditional frequency bands, in all sleep stages and across sleep cycles using high-density EEG (HD-EEG). Method: Thirty drug-naïve children with ADHD (10.5 ± 2.1 years, 21 male) and 23 typically developing (TD) control participants (mean age: 10.2 ± 1.6 years, 13 male) were included in the current analysis. Signal power topography was computed in classical frequency bands during sleep, contrasted between groups and sleep cycles, and correlated with measures of ADHD severity, cognitive functioning and estimated total sleep time. Results: Compared to TD subjects, patients with ADHD consistently displayed a widespread increase in low-frequency activity (between 3 and 10 Hz) during NREM sleep, but not during REM sleep and wake before sleep onset. Such a difference involved a wide centro-posterior cluster of channels in the upper SWA range, in Theta, and low-Alpha. Between-group difference was maximal in sleep stage N3 in the first sleep cycle, and positively correlated with average total sleep time. Conclusions: These results support the concept that children with ADHD, compared to TD peers, have a higher sleep pressure and altered sleep homeostasis, which possibly interfere with (and delay) cortical maturation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11771/20097
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