Distant spreading of primary lesions is modulated by the vascular dynamics of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their ability to establish metastatic niches. While the mechanisms regulating CTC homing in specific tissues are yet to be elucidated, it is well documented that CTCs possess different size, biological properties and deformability. A computational model is presented to predict the vascular transport and adhesion of CTCs in whole blood. A Lattice–Boltzmann method, which is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equation for the plasma flow, is coupled with an Immersed Boundary Method. The vascular dynamics of a CTC is assessed in large and small microcapillaries. The CTC shear modulus kctc is varied returning CTCs that are stiffer, softer and equally deformable as compared to RBCs. In large microcapillaries, soft CTCs behave similarly to RBCs and move away from the vessel walls; whereas rigid CTCs are pushed laterally by the fast moving RBCs and interact with the vessel walls. Three adhesion behaviors are observed—firm adhesion, rolling and crawling over the vessel walls—depending on the CTC stiffness. On the contrary, in small microcapillaries, rigid CTCs are pushed downstream by a compact train of RBCs and cannot establish any firm interaction with the vessel walls; whereas soft CTCs are squeezed between the vessel wall and the RBC train and rapidly establish firm adhesion. These findings document the relevance of cell deformability in CTC vascular adhesion and provide insights on the mechanisms regulating metastasis formation in different vascular districts.

Unraveling the Vascular Fate of Deformable Circulating Tumor Cells Via a Hierarchical Computational Model

Pietro Lenarda
Methodology
;
2019

Abstract

Distant spreading of primary lesions is modulated by the vascular dynamics of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their ability to establish metastatic niches. While the mechanisms regulating CTC homing in specific tissues are yet to be elucidated, it is well documented that CTCs possess different size, biological properties and deformability. A computational model is presented to predict the vascular transport and adhesion of CTCs in whole blood. A Lattice–Boltzmann method, which is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equation for the plasma flow, is coupled with an Immersed Boundary Method. The vascular dynamics of a CTC is assessed in large and small microcapillaries. The CTC shear modulus kctc is varied returning CTCs that are stiffer, softer and equally deformable as compared to RBCs. In large microcapillaries, soft CTCs behave similarly to RBCs and move away from the vessel walls; whereas rigid CTCs are pushed laterally by the fast moving RBCs and interact with the vessel walls. Three adhesion behaviors are observed—firm adhesion, rolling and crawling over the vessel walls—depending on the CTC stiffness. On the contrary, in small microcapillaries, rigid CTCs are pushed downstream by a compact train of RBCs and cannot establish any firm interaction with the vessel walls; whereas soft CTCs are squeezed between the vessel wall and the RBC train and rapidly establish firm adhesion. These findings document the relevance of cell deformability in CTC vascular adhesion and provide insights on the mechanisms regulating metastasis formation in different vascular districts.
Lattice Boltzmann method, Immersed Boundary method, Cell mechanics
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Lenarda2019_Article_UnravelingTheVascularFateOfDef.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Nessuna licenza
Dimensione 7.21 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
7.21 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11771/18017
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 8
social impact